Produces creamy flowers with a hint of purple on tall stems in July to September and attractive pale green and white bracts. Seed production per plant may vary from 1,600 to 8,400 seeds. Suitable for: Cut Flowers. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. Flowers: July, August. The species has a two year life cycle, flowering and setting seed in the second year. Not listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Spear thistle, bank thistle, bird thistle, black thistle, blue thistle, boar thistle, bull thistle, bur thistle, button thistle, common bull thistle, common thistle, Fuller's thistle, green thistle, plume thistle, roadside thistle, Scotch thistle, swamp thistle. £3.00. Overgrazed pastures are susceptible to encroachment, and it can sometimes form dense stands that reduce productivity and stocking levels. The seeds are attractive to small finches such as American goldfinch. It inhibits seed germination and seedling growth. Disturbance of the soil and vegetation has been shown to advance the germination of spear thistle. Henderson, L. (2001). Seeds are short-lived on the soil surface but can persist for many years when they are buried, such as from cultivation activities. Low Maintenance, Cottage/Informal, Flower Arranging, Beds and borders, Wildflower, Wildlife. C. vulgare spreads freely by means of  seed which can be dispersed by the wind over a large area. Accumulator: C. vulgare is a "Terrestrial indigenous and crop [plant] able to absorb, translocate and accumulate HMX in foliar tissues (from contaminated soil from an anti-tank firing range)" [Ramsden BMDHP] Allelopathic: C. arvense is allelopathic against several species including C. vulgare. Another important means of seed dispersal is in baled hay or as a contaminant in cereal, clover and grass seed. It is frequent on unsown set-aside land and seems to have increased since the 1960s. We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. 1- SPEAR THISTLE – Cirsium vulgare One end of the seed contains many brown hairs. Spear thistle can be pulled out when in flower, or the taproot may be cut below ground when plants are at the rosette stage using a thistle hoe. Seeds C-F > Cirsium oleraceum Cirsium oleraceum SKU: £3.00. Cirsium vulgare (spear thistle). The flowers of Cirsium vulgare are a rich source of nectar and pollen. Cirsium lanceolatum bull thistle This plant and the related entities and synonyms italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. However, care should be taken to use a selective broadleaf herbicide to keep the competitive grasses intact. is the correct and accepted scientific name for this species of Thistle. Seed Catalogue No. deeply-lobed leaf with spiny margins (Photo: Sheldon Navie), uppermost leaves and young flower-head with numerous spiny floral bracts (Photo: Sheldon Navie), seeds topped with long hairs (Photo: Sheldon Navie), mature flower-heads (Photo: Sheldon Navie), close-up of winged stem and leaf bases (Photo: Sheldon Navie), basal rosette of large lower leaves (Photo: Sheldon Navie), close-up of flower-head (Photo: Sheldon Navie), close-up of seedling (Photo: Sheldon Navie), close-up of seeds with hairs removed (Photo: Steve Hurst at USDA PLANTS Database), Carduus lanceolatus L.; Carduus vulgarisSavi. Manipulation of grazing together with sowing of appropriate grasses can help to reduce the densities of this weed. Lighting Conditions: Full Sun, Partial Sun. Spread is only by seed, not by root fragments as in the related creeping thistle C. arvense. More seeds are produced when ample soil moisture is available during the growing season. Consistent follow-up work is required for sustainable management. Seeds submerged in water gave 1% germination after 3 months. We use cookies to personalise content, analyse website performance and for advertising purposes. As the leaf rosette develops it physically suppresses the growth of the surrounding grass. In the southern hemisphere, C. vulgare flowers and sets seed from late January (Groves and Kaye, 1989) to late May (Forcella and Wood, 1986b). This activity was undertaken as part of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project (Taxonomy for Development in East Africa). Public and private landowners are not required to control infestations of bull thistle that occur on their property in King County. Cirsium vulgare(bull thistle, common thistle, or spear thistle) is listed as a noxious weed in nine US states. Great for adding an focal point to a border. https://themeaningofwater.com/.../the-bull-thistle-cirsium-vulgare-a-study Cirsium vulgare spreads from pastures, crops, waste areas and roadsides into disturbed native grasslands, open woodlands and conservation areas. Agnes Lusweti, National Museums of Kenya; Emily Wabuyele, National Museums of Kenya, Paul Ssegawa, Makerere University; John Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat - UK. Cirsium heterophyllum is known for attracting bees, beneficial insects, birds, butterflies / moths and other pollinators. The species has a two year life cycle, flowering and setting seed in the second year. Spear thistle does appear to accumulate a persistent seedbank and seedlings may only emerge after fresh seed has been shed. Manual pulling is easier in moist conditions in spring and autumn. Spear thistle reproduces only by seed and it is important to prevent fresh seeding. Common Name: Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare, more commonly known as Spear Thistle, is a tall biennial or short-lived monocarpic thistle, forming a rosette of leaves and a taproot up to 70 cm long in the first year, and a flowering stem 1.0–1.5 m tall in the second (rarely third or fourth) year. A large, non-spiky, perennial thistle, native to central and eastern Europe and Asia in wet soils. Canadian Journal of Botany, 74: 1386-1391. Species: heterophyllum. Shrubs, Bulbs, Seeds. Family Name: Compositae/Asteraceae. A flush of emergence is stimulated by rainfall but there can be high seedling mortality if dry conditions then follow. (1996) A persistent seed bank of the bull thistle Cirsium vulgare. A very desirable garden plant, Cirsium rivulare 'Atropurpureum', commonly known as Plume Thistle, is a tall, branching, upright perennial exhibiting strong, leafless stems with pincushion-like, deep crimson flowers, up to 1 in wide (3 cm), atop a large basal rosette of soft green leaves. Several herbicides are available for the control of C. vulgare. The plant is self-fertile. Seeds may germinate and become established in thinner parts of a grass sward. The average number of seeds per flower head is around 100 but there can be up to 340. Cirsium vulgare has poor dispersal in space, but can form a persistent seed bank. A magnet for bees and birds! Regular cutting, cultivation and tilling considerably reduce populations of C. vulgare and should be encouraged. It is utilized by various insects, such as beetles, honey bees, bumble bees, hoverflies and many butterflies. More seeds are produced when ample soil moisture is available during the growing season. In all types of soil, seeds buried at 15 cm deep remain firm and viable for at least 3 years. The seedlings should be planted out in early spring, when it is still possible to get a frost with a spacing of about 2 feet (60 cm). Lifecycle: Perennial. Rosettes at 5-8 cm in diameter are more readily lifted and disposed of than large plants. However, these uses cannot compensate for this plant's overall negative impacts. Nevertheless, most seed is dispersed less than 2 m from the parent and only 10% travel more that 32 m after reaching higher air currents. Plant in moist, well-drained soil. Stems of C. vulgare have spiny wings. longitudinally) with spiny 'wings' originating where the edges of the leaves continue down the stem. Spear thistle seedlings may emerge in spring and autumn but the main period of emergence is March to April. (Cirsium lanceolatum, Carduus lanceolatum, Cnicus lanceolatum). 298104) and Scotland (SC046767). The best form of invasive species management is prevention. Human activities such as bailing or harvesting can also aid the dispersal of seeds. PPR, ARC South Africa. Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare) is wild, edible and nutritious food. Cirsium vulgare reproduces only by seed. 12, 300pp. Spear thistle spreads only by seed. Cirsium vulgare is invasive in parts of Kenya (e.g. On intact plants the first ripe seeds are formed by the end of July. Accessed January 2011. Seeds are dispersed during August and September. As a celebration and count-down to this anniversary the University of Oxford Botanic Garden and Harcourt Arboretum together with the Oxford University Herbaria and the Department of Plant Sciences will highlight 400 plants of scientific and cultural significance. They serve no economic purpose and possess characteristics that are harmful to humans, animals or the environment) and Hawaii. In heavier soils, however, a small number of seeds may remain for 3 years or more. Cirsium vulgare, Spear Thistle seeds, ready for wind dispersal, Wales, UK. is a registered charity in England and Wales (no. If grown indoors first then Cirsium takes about 2 to 3 weeks to germinate at a temperature of 70 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit (21 to 24 degrees Celsius). The 25th July 2021 marks 400 years of botanical research and teaching by the University of Oxford. Spear thistle rosettes grow better in grazed than ungrazed pasture because of reduced competition from neighbouring plants. The plants need to reach a threshold size before flowering is initiated. A complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Cirsium vulgare has medicinal properties and can be used as "survival food" if necessary. Plants cut down in flower produce few seeds and although they appear normal none are viable. https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/cirvul/all.html Grazing management can help to reduce the ability of Cirsium vulgare to invade pasture lands. Leaves are dark green, deeply lobbed, with stiff hairs above, white woolly beneath; Leaf lobes end in strong spines. The average number of seeds per flower head is around 100 but there can be up to 340. All prices include postage and packing. Bull Thistle, Boar Thistle, Common Thistle, Dodder, Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare SIR-see-um vul-GAIR-ee Synonyms of Cirsium vulgare: Carduus vulgaris Savi, Cirsium vulgare var. Fewer than 10 seedlings are likely to develop from the seeds shed by an individual thistle plant. Spear thistle (Cirsium vulgare) is regarded as an environmental weed in parts of south-eastern Australia (i.e. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. The precise management measures adopted for any plant invasion will depend upon factors such as the terrain, the cost and availability of labour, the severity of the infestation and the presence of other invasive species. Buy Cirsium rivulare 'Atropurpureum' from Sarah Raven: Handsome, long-flowering, easy, healthy and loved by our pollinating insects. Kajiado and Laikipia) and has been introduced to Tanzania and Uganda (A.B.R. obs.). Downs, M.P. The flowers are pollinated by bees and other insects. (1988) reported mean seed numbers per plant of 258, 647 and 2,080 This fact sheet is adapted from The Environmental Weeds of Australia by Sheldon Navie and Steve Adkins, Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland. It was named and described as such by Michele Tenore in Flora Napolitana in 1835. Seeds do not germinate after 3 years in dry storage. Cirsium vulgare as a weed Spear thistle is designated an "injurious weed" under the UK Weeds Act 1959, and a noxious weed in Australia and in nine US states. Thistle seeds are a favoured food of many members of the finch family Fringillidae, whose genus name, Carduelis, is derived from carduus, the Latin name for thistle and includes goldfinch, greenfinch and linnet. The fruit is a one seeded tufted  achene that bears silky hairs. Habitats include pastures, abandoned fields, fence rows, areas along roadsides and railroads, cut-over woods, and miscellaneous waste areas. For more information, see Noxious Weed Lists and Laws or visit the website of the Washington State Noxious Weed Contro… Seeds have little dormancy and germinate readily in moist conditions at favourable temperatures in the light. : 349F. The stem is winged, with many longitudinal spine-tipped wings along its full length. www.prota4u.org/protav8.asp?h=M4&t=Cirsium,vulgare&p=Cirsium+vulgare#Synonyms. Unlike creeping thistle (C. arvense), the feathery pappus remains attached firmly to the seed as an aid to wind dispersal. Cultivation. CABI Publishing 2011. www.cabi.org/ISC. It has been listed as a noxious weed in South Africa (prohibited plants that must be controlled. Cirsium vulgare (Spear thistle) will reach a height of 2m and a spread of 0.5m after 2-5 years. If prevention is no longer possible, it is best to treat the weed infestations when they are small to prevent them from establishing (early detection and rapid response). Cirsium vulgare is a spiny herbaceous biennial, much branched to about 1.5 metres high with a deep tap root. They should be sown at a depth of 0.12 inch (3 mm). Fresh seeds are capable of germinating in either light/dark or constant dark conditions under favourable diurnal temperatures of 25°C: 10°C. Cirsium vulgare is a BIENNIAL growing to 2 m (6ft 7in) at a fast rate. Synonyms: Carduus lanceolatus, Cirsium lanceolatum Common names: bull thistle Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle) is a perennial or biennial forb (family Asteraceae) Bull thistle is widespread in California and is most common in coastal grasslands, along edges of fresh and brackish marshes, and in meadows and mesic forest openings in the … Genus: Cirsium. In light soils the seeds do not persist for longer than a year on the surface or in shallow layers of soil. Plants can be self-pollinated or insect-pollinated, mainly by long-tongued bees. Colour: Purple/Lavender. If started to be grown indoors first, then Cirsium takes about two to three weeks to germinate at a temperature of 21 to 24 degrees Centigrade (70 to 75°F). Alien weeds and invasive plants. Spear thistle flowers in June and July but rosettes can survive for up to 4 years without flowering. Witt pers. Soil type. Seeds are short-lived on the soil surface but can persist for many years when they are buried, such as from cultivation activities. Doucet, C. & Cavers, P.B. Seed production per plant may vary from 1,600 to 8,400 seeds. The seeds are attractive to ants that may further disperse the shed seeds. C. vulgare flowers from late July to October and sets seed from August to October in the northern hemisphere (Grime et al., 1988). cap blanc nez france cote d'opale pas de calais Bull Thistle (Cirsium Vulgare) And Other Wildflowers. album Mozaff. Biological control releases against C. vulgare have been undertaken in many countries with variable success. Stem and leaves "The stems are ridged lengthwise (i.e. Cirsium heterophyllum and wildlife. The species may also dominate forest clear cuts and reduce growth of tree seedlings. Some components of an integrated management approach are introduced below. The downy white underside contrasts with the green topside. Download this stock image: Spear Thistle, Cirsium vulgare, seed head - X9XH43 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Most species are considered weeds, typically by agricultural interests. Pasture Thistle can be identified by examining the underside of the leaves. This plant bears leaves that end in extended, very sharp thorns and are beige in colour. The seeds are straw colored with a black streak approximately 1/6 inch long. Seidiger Fallkaefer, (Cryptocephalus sericeus), an Kratzdistell, (Cirsium vulgare), Deutschland, Europa. Plants can be self-pollinated or insect-pollinated, mainly by long-tongued bees. Hardiness: Hardy. Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales)." Through campaigning, advice, community work and research, our aim is to get everyone growing ‘the organic way’. In arable crops, spear thistle seedlings are destroyed by surface cultivations in spring, and by hoeing or spudding as necessary. The seeds of scotch thistles can be sown in either autumn or after the last frost of spring. Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled. It nectar-pollen-rich-flowers and has seeds … Flowers of C. vulgare occur in heads of 5 by 5 cm, are pink to mauve and are surrounded by spiny bracts. On intact plants the first ripe seeds are formed by the end of July. Unavailable per item 30 seeds per packet. Our charity brings together thousands of people who share a common belief - that organic growing is essential for a healthy and sustainable world. Loose-rooted plants supplied. Spear thistle is a robust biennial or short-lived monocarpic perennial that can be a serious problem in grassland and waste and cultivated ground throughout the UK. C. vulgare has been included in the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD 2010). BioNET-EAFRINET Regional Coordinator: eafrinet@africaonline.co.ke, Introduced, naturalised or invasive in East Africa, www.prota4u.org/protav8.asp?h=M4&t=Cirsium,vulgare&p=Cirsium+vulgare#Synonyms. Klinkhamer et al. Family Asteraceae Genus Cirsium may be biennials or perennials with spiny leaves and typical thistle-type flower-heads Details 'Atropurpureum' is an upright perennial forming a clump of branching, leafy stems with spherical, deep red flower-heads 3cm across in summer Suggested uses. Seed production may vary from 1,600 to 8,400 seeds per plant (Sindel, 1991). From Our Gift Shop. This species prefers disturbed areas and is not common in relatively undisturbed natural habitats. They should be sown at a depth of 3 mm (1/8th inch). Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Locations within which Cirsium vulgare is naturalised include Africa and Asia, New Zealand, Australia, USA, Canada, South America, Hawaii and other Pacific islands. How to grow Scotch thistle - Cirsium. Additionally, native thistles are noticeably less prickly to weedy or non-native thistles like Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare) or Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, flies, Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies), beetles. Soil Type: Chalk, Sand, Loam C. vulgare only reproduces by seed so control of seed set is key to preventing new infestations. Flowering and seed production is improved and seedling survival is greater.

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