Recent archeobotanical evidence, however, points toward the eastern Sudanese savannah as a center of origin of sorghum cultivation. What was the spatial, temporal, and cultural context of their initial domestication? In this document, 'domesticated sorghum' refers to S. bicolor subsp. Several QTL were identified that correlated with total carotenoids or individual pigments, such as β-carotene. Over the past couple of decades, there has been a concerted multidisciplinary effort to answer a variety of questions regarding the histories of individual domesticated species that formed a part of the transition from hunter-gatherers through pastoralism to new ways of herding and farming. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is the world's fifth most important cereal after maize, rice, wheat, and barley. Beer has been produced from sorghum in many African countries for decades, either because there was no other grain source available or through preference. Sorghum bicolor subsp. W.L. Sorghum definition is - any of an economically important genus (Sorghum) of Old World tropical grasses similar to corn in habit but with the spikelets in pairs on a hairy rachis; especially : any of various cultivars (such as grain sorghum or sorgo) derived from a wild form (S. bicolor synonym S. vulgare). To prevent crossing of cultivated sorghums with Johnsongrass use THE ORIGIN OF SORGHUM BICOLOR. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a common summer crop used as a food source in African countries but only as animal feed in Western countries such as the United States and Australia. Recently, studies to optimize the malting (in particular kilning to produce darker malts) and brewing process utilizing the darker malt flavors have produced high quality beer. Kamala Venkateswaran, ... N. Sivaraj, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. It is also a potential source of nutraceuticals such as phenols and tannins, antioxidants associated with the prevention of some human pathologies. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. DISTRIBUTION AND DOMESTICATION' J. M. J. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-101879-8.00002-4. Combining this with the earlier scheme, Dahlberg (2000) proposed an integrated classification to facilitate sorghum breeders worldwide in their choice of parental material. Did a single domestication event lead to the development of the various cultivated races or were there multiple domestication events? SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor L.) VERNACULAR NAMES Juar (Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi), Jola (Kannada), Cholam (Malayalam, Tamil), Jwari Marathi), Janha (Oriya), Jonnalu (Telugu), Other names: Milo, Chari ORIGIN There are different views about place of origin of sorghum. II. Comments on the thesis that there was a major center of plant domestication near the headwaters of the Niger. The use of representative subsets, such as minicore collection, is helping researchers find new genetic variations associated with agronomically beneficial traits for use in breeding and genomics research of sorghum (Upadhyaya et al., 2014a). bicolor' refers to all wild, weedy, and cultivated forms of Sorghum bicolor.The focus of this document is domesticated sorghum, however Sudan grass, sorghum × Sudan grass hybrids, and other cultivated sorghums are also considered. Sorghum is a genomic resource-rich crop and its increasing use will guide breeders to develop targeted populations/cultivars with specific adaptation. Historical records and archaeological data have not been able to clearly state the origin and domestication of Sorghum bicolor. P. Pontieri, L. Del Giudice, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016. Previously 571 cultivars were recognized. When did agriculture become a major alternative to hunting-gathering? black amber. Other types of speciality sorghums are listed on www.nap.edu/catalog/2305/lost-crops-of-africa-volume-i-grains. 1. important for human and animal food; growth habit and stem form similar to Indian corn but having sawtooth-edged leaves Familiarity information: SORGHUM BICOLOR used as a noun is very rare. Difficult to make hay because of thick stems. The Spontanea complex of S. bicolor (L.) Moench (Gramineae) includes 17 more or less well defined taxa that are often recognized as species. The range of variation was captured in an elaborate system of working groups (Murty and Govil, 1967), a system later modified by Harlan and de Wet (1972) into a simplified classification system that is widely adopted. There are many species of sorghum, the most popular being Sorghum bicolor, which is native to Africa. It is rich in carbohydrates, contains micronutrients, and is rich in insoluble fiber. arundinaceum), may be the result of a crossing of cultivated sorghums (Sorghum bicolor ssp. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. So called ‘bird-resistant, bird-proof or bird-repellent’ sorghums contain condensed tannins, in the nucellar layer and pericarp, that are distasteful to birds and give the crops some protection. Many economically important traits, viz. The earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Alternative uses include beer, alcohol, and syrup production. Rooney, in Encyclopedia of Food Grains (Second Edition), 2016. Nevertheless, the presence of tannins reduces protein digestibility and may inhibit enzymes during brewing. Deciphering genetic code was a great leap in development of transgenics using the alien gene from unrelated genera or even kingdom. White food-grade sorghum flour contains about 10% protein and about 3.3% fat (for most unsaturated fats), higher than that of wheat. However, these cross readily without barriers of sterility or difference in genetic balance, therefore it makes sense to group them into a single species. bicolor) and Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), an invasive, noxious weed in many parts of the U.S. (Hill, 1983). The more frequent (Sorghum bicolor ssp. When, where, and how many times did domestication take place? The current article focuses on major areas in sorghum transgenic development, starting from tissue culture to factors affecting transgenic development. Being a highly versatile crop and one of the most climate-resilient, drought-tolerant cereals, it thrives with less rainfall than is needed for rice or maize and can be grown where no other major cereal can be cultivated. drummondii.'S. Sorghum bicolor . Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some … Other popular species are native to Australia, India, and other Southeast Asian countries (1). S. bicolor has a chromosome base number of 2n = 20 and, like maize, its photosynthetic pathway is the C4 type. Sorghum bicolor subsp. Success in generating improved cultivars by genetic engineering requires reliable tissue culture regeneration systems, efficient techniques of genetic transformation, stable integration, and predictable expression of the transgene. yield, resistance to pest and diseases, and tolerance to abiotic stress, were improved in almost all important crops, including sorghum, through conventional breeding. 1936, Harry Nelson Vinall, Joseph Charlworth Stephens, John Holmes Martin, Identification, History, and Distribution of Common Sorghum Varieties, US Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. Sorghum spread throughout Africa, and along the way, adapted to a wide range of environments from the highlands of Ethiopia to the semi-arid Sahel. • SORGHUM BICOLOR (noun) The noun SORGHUM BICOLOR has 1 sense:. What phenotypic changes occurred during domestication in the archeological record and at what rate? Ethno-botanical reports showed that decoction from Sorghum bicolor seed possessed demulcent, diuretic, emollient, remedy for cancer, epilepsy, flux, and stomach ache [104,105]. Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrids and Sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor) Origin: Northeast Africa. Then again, vis-a-vis sorghum, when and where did domestication start? These four wild races are classified under S. bicolor subsp. Dictionary entry overview: What does Sorghum bicolor mean? Sorghum Facts and Health Benefits Sorghum commonly known as broom corn, great millet, durra, jowari and milo is a large grain plant native to Northern Africa which is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions these days. Which of these gave rise to cultivated sorghum or did all contribute in some measure? verticilliflorum (Steud.) Questions regarding the time and place of its origin and domestication have been long deliberated on and debated. However, compared to barley or wheat beers, sorghum beers have been historically lower in quality. This process is believed to have begun about 10,000–12,000 years ago. bicolor. Anthropological evidence suggests that hunter-gatherers were exceedingly familiar with wild forms of sorghum as early as 8000 BC (Smith and Frederiksen, 2000). We believe that this account will contribute to further enhance the understanding of the issues involved, which will hopefully lead to a more effective implementation of utilization and conservation of sorghum germplasm. The origin and early domestication of sorghum took place in northeastern Africa. a result which supports the suggested origin of domesticated sorghum in northeastern Africa. Yi-Hong Wang, ... Ismail Dweikat, in Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement, 2016. A cereal, Sorghum bicolor (syn. (1970) described the various groups of cultivated sorghum and identified their historical geographic distribution. shattercane. The origin and early domestication of sorghum took place in Northeastern Africa. Description: Annual. Sorghum adapted to a wide range of environments throughout Africa, spreading from the highlands of Ethiopia to the semi-arid Sahel. The Origin and Domestication of Sorghum bicolor J. M. J. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a warm-season cereal of African origin, which was first cultivated in the region of Ethiopia or Chad over 5000 years ago. When harvested and dried, these stiff bristles are processed and bound to form broom heads and brushes and are also used for wreaths and other decorations. De Wet et al. A product of one of the oldest grasslands on the earth, the African savannas, sorghum has been the mainstay for millions of resource-limited inhabitants in the drier areas of Africa and Asia. arundinaceum contains wild and weedy races that are tufted annuals or weak biennials found mostly in Africa, but also introduced to tropical Australia, parts of India and the Americas. Originating in Africa, they have since been introduced to various tropical and subtropical parts of the world. 'Sudan grass' and 'shattercane' both refer to S. bicolor subsp. Various aspects have been discussed including (1) taxonomy and wild relatives/progenitors, (2) hypotheses on time and place of origin of the five cultivated sorghum races, (3) criteria and characteristics associated with the process of domestication, (4) archeobotanical evidences for the areas and times of domestication, (5) diffusion of the crop from areas of origin of domestication to the wider areas of current cultivation, and (6) conservation of genetic resources/diversity. It spread to India by 4000 years ago and later to China and to southern Africa by about 1500 years ago. drummondii) is derived from a hybrid event, and has been collected only in Massachusetts. The variation is also reflected in seed size. chicken corn. Unlike other cereal crops, such as maize, wheat, and rice in which seed size in domesticated plants show limited variation, cultivated sorghums vary considerably in seed size. However, for sorghum the structure of the storage proteins differs somewhat to barley and wheat in that sorghum has lower levels of proline and there are no reported toxic protein sequences. sorghum. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Within this context, overall grain quality is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Botanists, evolutionists, and archeologists alike have long debated the origins and domestication of cultivated sorghum. The earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C. What wild species and populations were ancestral to specific crops? Sorghum bicolor subsp. HISTORY OF SORGHUM. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) 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